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Complete blood count

Explanation guide for the results of blood tests.

 

One of the most significant advances in modern medicine is the performance of a detailed blood test as a standard examination to assess the true degree of health of the human body.

 

The results of blood tests reflect developments in the human body. Upon receipt of the results of the tests, doctors evaluate the functioning of various organs (eg liver, thyroid, etc.), the course of metabolic processes and evaluate the data of markers of various diseases.

 

Analīžu atbildēs tiek norādīti pacienta asins sastāva rezultāti un references rādītāji (t.i. vispārpieņemti vesela cilvēka normas rādītāji).

 

The results of blood tests can confirm that the patient's well-being is objectively justified and does not cause pathogens hidden in the body, or, conversely, to answer what medications or supplements are recommended to restore the body's health.

 

At a health check-up, your doctor will usually refer to a 'complete blood count', a lipid profile that measures cholesterol and its related elements. To make it easier for patients to understand the meaning of abbreviations and tests for commonly used blood tests, the MFD Laboratory has prepared an explanation.

 


The complete blood count is:

clinical blood count (Hb, L, Er, Ht, Tr) + leukocyte formula + EGA


Hemoglobin (Hb or HGB)

Normal values:


Age

Womans (g/dl)

Mens(g/dl)

11-16 

12 - 16.8

12 - 16.8

16-... 

11.9 - 15.7

13.4 - 17.6


Red blood cells contain homoglobin, which stains the blood bright red. However, more important is the function of hemoglobin to transport oxygen from the lungs to all tissues, as well as the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs - exhalation. Hemoglobin levels vary between the sexes and at different ages.

Low hemoglobin levels indicate anemia or recent bleeding.

Recommendation To avoid adequate Hb levels in the body, avoid smoking and strenuous exercise before donating blood.

 


Leukocides (L or WBC)

Normal values:


Age

Womans (x109/L)

Mens (x109/L)

12 - 15 i

5.5 – 9.8

5.5 – 9.8

15-17

4.6 – 8.7

4.6 – 8.7

17-...

4.6 – 8.4

4.4 – 8.0



The leukocide count result is used to monitor the activity of the inflammatory process or its reduction, to determine the body's response to the chosen method of treatment, as well as to diagnose other diseases or physiological changes.

 

Elevated white blood cell counts may indicate inflammation, emotional or physical stress, allergies, or tissue injury (including a heart attack). Elevated levels are also seen during pregnancy.

 

Decreased numbers indicate damage to the bone marrow (of various origins - trauma or chemotherapy), as well as immunodeficiency, such as HIV infection.

 

 

Erythrocytes (Er or RBC)

Normal values: 


Age

Womans

(millions cm3)

Mens

(millions cm3)

11-15

4.0 - 5.1

4.0 - 5.1

15-...

4.0 - 5.1

4.6 - 5.5



Erythrocytes develop and mature in the bone marrow. Its lifespan is about 120 days, during which the erythrocyte in the human body travels a distance of about 250 kilometers.

There are millions of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the human body that transport hemoglobin from the lungs to the tissues and back. This is the number of red blood cells in a given blood. In turn, it helps to determine the total amount of erythrocytes in the human body, but does not indicate exactly where the health problem is.

If there are deviations, additional examinations are required. The indicator is used to diagnose anemia.

The amount of erythrocytes in the human body is affected by diet, various diseases, medications (eg analgesics, antibiotics, anticonvulsants, etc.), as well as exercise.

 

Hematocrit (Ht or HCT)

Normal values:


Age

Womans (%)

Mens (%)

11-16

34.0 - 46.0

34.0 - 46.0

16-...

36.0 - 47.0

40.0 - 50.0


Applicable in the diagnosis of anaemia, the total amount of blood is indicated in red blood cells. The indicator depends directly on the amount of red blood cells and their size. The parameters change at pregnancy and hyperhydration, as well as after bleedings, infusions of haemolysis, blood and blood substitutes, or increased loss of body fluids (via vomiting, diarrhoea, etc.)



Platelets (Tr or PLT)

Normal values:


Age

Womans and mens (x109/L)

0 - 1

220 - 565

1 - 6

200 - 557

6 - 11

181 - 521

11 - 16

154 - 442

16-...

150 - 400

 

Platelets are small blood cells that participate in the blood clotting process. Their lifespan is 7-10 days, there is a fluctuation in the number during the day: at night it is the least. Decreased platelet counts and activity may result in symptoms of haemorrhagic diathesis, with an increased tendency to thrombosis.

Activity-reducing factors are: drugs (sulfanilamides, aspirin, dextran, etc.), benzene, alcohol, B12 and folic acid deficiency, fasting, leukemia.

The platelet count plays an important role in surgery planning

 

Leucocidal formula (Ne, Eo, Ba, Mo, Ly)

Normal values:

 

Age

Neutrophils %

Eosinophils %

Basophils %

Monocytes %

Lymphocytes %

1 - 4

32-54

1-5

0-2

4-10

34 - 54

4 - 9

42-55

1-5

0-2

4-10

34-50

9 - 15

45-70

1-5

0-2

3-11

30-44

15-...

48-72

0.3-5.4

0-2

2-11

20-41



The leucocide formula measures the number, size and shape of different types of leucocides and shows whether these types of leucocides are in appropriate proportions to each other. Deviations from the accepted proportions may indicate infection, inflammation, autoimmune disease, or other health problems.


Erythrocyte sink rate (EGA)

Normal values:

 

Age

Womans (mm/h)

Mens (mm/h)

0-14

1-10

1-10

14-50

1-18

1-15

>50

1-23

1-18



The indicator is used as a non-specific diagnostic test for the inflammatory process. It indicates the rate at which blood breaks down into red blood cells and plasma. If the speed is increased, it may indicate inflammatory processes in the body, or another disease, the diagnosis of which requires a detailed assessment of the patient's complaints. In turn, after treatment, the EGA slowly decreases to normal.

 


Assessment of EAA changes:

below 20 mm / h slowed down (reason to be found)

20-55 mm / h is inflammation

55-90 mm / h severe inflammation

above 90 mm / h very severe inflammation (indicates a serious systemic disease (connective tissue systemic diseases, malignancies, infections, cirrhosis, etc.).

 

______________________________________________________________________________

In order to ensure more accurate results of blood tests, it is necessary to follow the doctor's recommendations e.g. do not eat or drink only water a few hours before donating blood. We urge everyone to follow the doctor's recommendations when preparing for a blood donation, as inaccurate test results mean additional examinations and unnecessary medication.

 

Be sure to ask your doctor an explanation of the results of the tests and your condition.

 

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